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          头头国际app下载一图速览丨事关雄安 河北自贸试验区新闻发布会上这些信息值得关注! ByWuJinglianResearchReportNo195,seconomicgrowthsincethefoundingofthePeoplesRepublichasbeenfollowingthepat,thecontemporaryeconomicdeenturytotheearlystageofgrowt,thh,whichlast,thedevelopedcountriesenteredaperiodofeconomicgrowthcharacter,thedevelopmenteconomicsformednewtheorieaseriesofnegativeeconomicandsocialconsequences,suchastheworseninglivingconditionsoftheworkingclassandtheseriouspollutions,whichwerecalledtheevilsoftheso-called"ManchesterCapitalism".theratioofcapitaltolaborandtheratioofinvariablecapitaltovariablecapital,namelytheorganiccompositionofcapital,theratioofvariablecapital(capitalusedforwagepayment)tivelysurpluspopulation(namelytheunemployedpopulation).Inotherwords,theincomeoftheworkersortheproportionoftheirconsumptionfundsinthenationalincomewouldbecomeincreasinglysmaller,whichinturncausedth,sanalysisofthemodeofeconomicgrowthintheearlyye,whiletheearlyindustrializedcountrieshadallturnedtothemodernmodeofefficiency-drivengrowthinthelate19thcentury,thesocialistcountriesledbytheSovieinthe1920scharacterizedbyaconsciousintroductionoftheearlycapitalismmodeofgrowth,namelythe"lineofsocialistindustrializationgivingprioritytothedevelopmentofheavyindustry".This"lineofsocialistindustrialization"putfo,itwasoutofpracticalneed,theneedthattheSovietUnionsurrsethelegitimacyoftheirlineandsuppresstheinner-partyopponentsinthepartysstrugglesthattheycitedtheexpositionsontheearlygrowthofcapitalismmadebyVlnsectorproducingmeansofproduction,fastinthemeansofproductionsectorproducingconsumergoods,ateinvestmentmadetoensuretheprioritygrowthoftheheavyindustrywasaconsciousapplicationofthe"basicprinciplesofMarxstheoryofreproduction".Stalins"lineofsocialistindustrialization"wasconfirmedbytheSovietCommunistPartyastheonlycorrectlineinthecountrys"campaignagainstrightopportunism",Feldman,aneconomistoftheSovietPlanningCommission,wasauthorizedto,knownastheFeldmanmodel,,includingChina,ismodeofgrowthasfromthelate1950sandtooksomemeasuresinthecourseofreformandopeninguptoalleviateandeliminateitsconsequences,achangeinthemodeofgrowthhasneverbecomofindustrialization,somecountriesandregionsinEas,thesecountriesandregi,,toagreatextent,becausemanycountriesandregionsinEastAsiaadoptedanexport-orientedpolicyandreplacedtheshrinkingdomesticdemandwiththeexportdemandsoastoeasethesl,theexport-orientedpolicyfeaturingtheappropriategovernmentprotectionofnationalenterprisesandthedevaluationofnationalcurrencieswasoftenregardedasoneoftheimportantmagicweaponsforcreatingthe"EastAsianmiracle"eformin1994,Chinaalsosuccessfullyusedthisapproachtoseekavigorousexportgrowthandtosupportasustainedrapideconomicgrowthwiththerobustexportdemand.ZhangWenkuiInrecentyears,,thereformisfarfromcom"SeparationofGovernmentFunctionsfromEnterpriseManagement"aswellasthe"LinkingUps"andthe"Restructuring"DerivingfromGovernmentInstitutionalReformThegovernmentorganizationalreformwhichstartedin1998hascanceledthespecializedministries,whileenterprisesoriginallyaffiliateddirectlytovariousministrieshavealso"separatedgovernmentfunctionsfromenterprisemanagement""separationofgovernmentfunctionsandenterprisemanagement",however,theseenterpriseshadtobe"linkedup"toothergovernmentandPartyorgans,forafterall,thestate-ownedorthestate-controlledenterprisesarethecarriersofstateassets,soi"linkingups"andthestateassetmanagementsystemTherearethreetypesof"linkingup".Thefirsto"linkup"withtheMinistryofFinanceintermsofassets,andwiththenewlyestablishedCentralEnterpriseWorkingCommitteeortheOrganizatio"linkup",theyshouldfacethe"restructuring"consequenceoftheprevioustwotypesofenterprisesand"linkup",thegovernmenthasthusentrustedthefirsttwotypesofenterprisestomanagethethirdgroup,aswellastosuper,itis"detachment"ontheonehandand"linkingup",itissimilartothedistributingofenterprisemanagementauthorityamongspecializedandcomprehensivedepartmen"detachment",thegovernmentisfacedwit,thegovernmenttriestomaintainandincreasethevalue,itsupervisestheenterprisesandtheirmanagerialpersonnelthroughspecialinspectors(whohavebeenchangedtoexternalinspectors),theauthorizedmanagementcontractsincreasetheresponsibilitiesofandthepressuresontheenterprisesandtheirmanagers,andthes,thecontractedstate-ownedassetmanagement,itisdifficultforthespecialinspectorsandtheappointedaccountantst"restructuring"andtheenterpriseincentivemechanismInfact,the"restructuring"ment,ith,theremnantclaimingandcontrollingpowersofthestate-ownedenterpriseshav,after20years’reformandopeningup,thestate-ownedenterprisesarenolongerthe"purelystate-ownedenterprises",but"sharedenterpriseswithstateownership".,asthe"restructuring"dismantlesthestabilityofthecontrollingpowerandthedistributionsystemofthethirdgroupofenterprises,,the"restructured"state-ownedenterpriseswillsufferfrominsufficientdevelopmentdrive,"Dilution"and"Exit"oftheState-ownedStockEquitiesTheso-calledsystemreformistoreformthetraditionalstate-own,thesystemreformofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshasbeenimplementedwidelyinChina,whilethatofthesmallstatofthenewshareholders,thediverseequityownershipmayinclude"externaldiversificationofequityownership"and"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersmainlyconsistofinternalstaffandworkers,includingthemanagerialpersonnel,itbelongsto"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersaremainlycomposedofexternallegalandnaturalpersons,itbelongsto"externaldiversificationofequityownership".Intermsofthetotalsizeoftheequityandthetotalsizeofthestate-ownedequity,thereare"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Capitalexpansionthroughlistingandtargetedstockfloatingis"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution",whic,thesellingandtransferofthestate-ownedsharesbelongtothe"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Thestate-ownedenterprisescontrolledbytheCentralGovernmenthavemainlyachievedtheirdiversificationofequityownershipthrough"externaldiversification"and"diversificationthroughdilution".Whereas,mostofthestate-ownedenterprisesandthe"restructured"enterprisescontrolledbylocalgovernmentsrealizedtheirequitydiversificationthroughthecombinationof"externaldiversification"and"internaldiversification",andthecombinationof"diversificationthroughdilution"and"diversificationthroughexit".Thespecificwaysincludethefollowing:transferringorsellingthestate-ownedsharesorthestate-ownedassetstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkersofenterprises,privateenterprisesandexternalnaturalpersons;capitalexpansionbysellingstockstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkers;,manystate-ownedenterprisesand"restructured"enterprisesc,inthesystemreform,thereisanabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandstate-ownedassetsellingsystemthatistransparent,icesarereasonable,,thecasemayberuledas"lossofthestate-ownedassets".Inreality,"sharedstate-ownedenterprises"sincethereformandopeningup,themanagerialpersonnelandthestaffandworkersonlywishtoturnsuch"sharing",the"lossofthestate-ownedassets"orthedebtevasionintentionusuallybecomestheobstacletothe"exit","dilution"afundedsystemoveralongtime,andthestaffandworkersconsiderthattheyshouldbecompensatedthro"repay"thesocialsecuritydebt,"unauthorizedprivatization"Theabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandsellingsystemthatistransparent,competitiveandacceptabletothecreditorsmakes"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit""sharing"legitimateandclear,"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theirmanagerialpersonnelsplittheenterprisesandadopt"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theseparatedpartsofthe,somemanagerialpersonnelhavetransferredtheprofitsfromlargestate-ownedenterprisestotheirseparatedpartsbymeansofinternaltransaction,andthusquicklydrainedtheprofitsofthelargestate-ownedenterprise....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.’,an,China’seconomyhasbyandlargesteppedontothetrackofsocialistmarketeconomy,themechanismofmarkethasstartedtoplayabasicroleindistributionofresources,andthetradebasedoncredithasbecomethedominantmethodinthecountry’,a"buyersmarket",,creditofferedbyenterpriseforpurchasea,however,thedisorderofcreditsystemhasbecomeacriticalissuehamperingChina’,andbecomebaddebts,increasingnon-performingloanndelayedforalongtime,,counterfeitandinfringem,concealing,,increasedthetransactioncostsanddecreasedtheeconomicoperationefficiency,butalsodirectlyaffectedandhamperedthemarketmechanismfromplayinganormalroleinthedistributionofresources,andreducedtheeffectofgovernment’spolioncontractsamongeconomicentities,’sentryintotheWTO,thechaosincreditsystemalsoseriouslytarnishedthecountry’sinternationalcreditimage,’smodernmarketeconomyhadnotgrownenough,theeconomybasedoncreditappearedlate,,,socialeconomicentitieslacktheco,althoughtheconceptofmarketeconomyforurbanandruralresidentsandenterpriseshavebeenstrengthened,theculturalenvironmtmechanismforassessingcreditmoralitybasedonwhich,withinanenterprise,whichincludesmanagementofreceivablesandproductsales,,throughwhichenterpriseithinChina’,improperofferingofcreditalwaysleadtofailureinperformingthecontract,andcredit-offeringenterprisesfrequentstatusofclients,,asthepropertyrightsystemofstate-ownedenterprisesisnotcomplete,theirinternaladministrationstructureisnotstandardized,andthesituationofbeingdependentongovernmentshasnotbeenendedcompletely,,uponwhichthevulnerablepartywithlessinformationwillbedefrauded,’ssociety:ontheonehand,thedataofcreditinformationisopenedinlowdegree;thereislackofachanneltostandardizethedistributionandcollectionofinformation;thereisnospecificlawprovisionsonpublicityanduseofcollectedinformation;informationaboutenterprisesandindividualsinthehandsofgovernmentdepartmentsandspecial,,marketoperationandcreditproductstosomeenterprises,theirmarketislimitedandisoperatedatadispersedstate,t,thedatabasesofChina’screditinter,,’srelatedlawsarenotcompleteandthepunishmentmechanismagainstbreachoffaithisnotcomplete,agreatnumberofdefaultsw,effectivecreditjointmechanismandthecreditinformationisunsymmetric,the"blackrecords"of,rtywholosecredibilityandindirectlybreakstheconfidenceofthosehono,thereisacompletecreditsupervisionandmanagementsystemofthestate,includinglegislationandenforcementrelatingtocredit,,,althoughthereisaprincipleofhonoringcreditinChina’sGeneralPrinciplesofCivilLaw,ContractLaw,andLawagainstCompetitionbyInappropriateMeans,andtherearesomeregulationsconcerningpunishmentonfraudsandsimilarcrimesintheCriminalLaw,thisstilldoesnotconst,ivelyweak....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Figure1TheYear-on-yearGDPGrowthRatesinDifferentQuartersduringtheFirstHalvesof2004~2007(%)Source:StateStatisticsBureau(2)GrowthoffixedassetinvestmentdeclinedandpositivechangestookplaceininvestmentstructureInthefirsthalfof2007,,%,yearonyear,%,yearonyear;%.Growthoftheenergy-consuming%.Ofthis,investmentincommunications,transportationandwarehousingaswellasinpostalservice,waterconservancyandmanagementofpublicfacilitiesgrewfast,%%,%%yearonyearrespectively,%intheeasternregion.(3)GrowthofincomesoftheurbanandruralresidentsacceleratedandtheconsumptiondemandrealizedamaximumgrowthInthefirsthalfof2007,theaggregateretailvolumeofthesocialconsumergoodsamountedto4200billionyuan,%,yearonyear,,,%;%.Cont,inhed7052yuan,%afterallowingfortheprice,increasing314yuanfromayearago,%,onsumptiondemandandthusstimulatedthegrowthofthenationaleconomy.(4)GrowthofthenationwidefinancialrevenuesacceleratedAccordingtothestatisticsoftheMinistryofFinance,fromJanuarythroughJune,,%fromayearago,%,%overthepreviousyear;%yearonyear.(5)Therewasanobviousturnaroundinsupplyanddemandformainenergyproducts,withthepricerisefallingbackInthefirsthalfof2007,,%,yearonyear;andtheaccumulativeoutputofrawcoal,%,%%,,importsofthemainenergyproductsincreasedrapidly,,%fromayearagoandthecoalimportgrew44%,yearonyear;%overthepreviousyear;%,therewashalfof2007,thenationaleconomyperformedwellasawhole,whichresulted:Inordertotackletheexcesscashflowandtheoverlyrapidassetpricerise,theCentralBankraisedtheinterestratesforthreetimesrunning;heightenedthedepositreservefundratioforfivetimes;market,taxregulationandcontrolmeasureswereenactedattherighttime,plus,thestatedepartmentsconcernedsuccessivelyimplementedaseriesofmacroregulationpoliciestoencourageimportandlimitexport,especiallytheexportofthehigh-energyconsumptionandhigh-pollutionproducts,adjustedtheexporttaxrefundpolicytoalargeextent,andreducedthetaxrefundratesofpartoftheproductsandincreasedexporttariffsofpartoftheproducts,reducingpollution,theStateCouncilsetuptheleadinggroupforenergysavingandpollutionreductionwork,reformedandimprovedenergysavingsupervisionsystem,promulgatedtheComprehensivePlanforEnergySavingandPollutionReduction,andp,vestmentaswellas5billionyuanfromthecentralfinancialbudgetandanadded10billionyut,thestatecarriedoutthepolicyofexercisingbothprotectionandsuppression,augmentedtheinvestmentinagricultureandinrelevantareasofthetertiaryindustry,strictlycontrolledtheinvestmentinindustriesofoverproduction,highenergyconsumptionandhighpollutantdumping,andrigorouslytooktheenvironmentalprotectionof2007andthisresultwascloselyrelatedtotheimplementationofthemacroregulationpolicies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,"AnalysisoftheChineseMarketSituationintheFirstHalfof2007andForecastontheFutureDevelopment" 


          ChenXiaohongLiuJunhaiIn2004,theNationalPeoplesCongressdecidedtocarryoncomprehensiverevisaloftheCompanyLawaccordingtoopinionsfromdeputiestotheNationalPeople,and,atthesametime,,’sspecialstudyonthe2004keytopicoftheResearchofChina’sCompanyLawundertakenbytheEnterpriseResearchInstituteofthedevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,thisart-stockcompanytoadopttheformofone-personcompany(namelythecompanywithonlyoneshareholder).Inprinciple,China’scurrentCompanyLawprohibitstheformofone--personcompany,butitallowsofsomeexceptions,ncompanyliesinthebel,whenaninvestorintendstosetupacorporateinordertoreducetheinvestmentriskortodevelopnewbusinesses,thepermissionontheset-upofone-personcompanyispossibletoreducethecompany’,,,,majorcountriesintherestof,therehavebeenfewobjectionsontheset-upoflimitedliabilitycompanies,,anditsmostimportantdiffere,theredoesnotexisttemintothejoint-stockcompanyandtogopublicwithoutacquiringspecialapproval,andformajorstockholdersinthelistedcompanytodelistthecompanyth,orforbetterutilizationofthecapitalmarket,agreatnumberofoverseascompaniesquiteoftenlisttheirrelativelyindependentsubsidiarieswhenthestockpricegoesup,siblycausedbyset-upofone-personcompany,werequirecorrespondingadjustmentontheCompany"uncoveringthecompanyveil".’swaysofcontributionThepresentCompanyLawhasenumeratedfivepermittedwaysofcontribution(currency,materialobject,industrialproperty,non-patentedtechnologyandlanduseright).,,suchdiversewaysof"independent,negotiable,price-able,andotherformsonwhichthelawsandregulationsdonothaveprohibitions",thepresentlawsandregulatingrights,’slegislationexperience,namely,ainties,’strans-investmentlimitsinthecurrentCompanyLawThe12tharticleinthecurrentCompanyLawhadstipulatedthelimitationonthecompany’strans-investmentvalue,namelytheaccumulationinvestmentvaluesshouldnotsurpass50%ofthiscompany’’spropertycontrolandindependentmanagementbehavior,trans-investmentmustsubmittothecompany’,itismerelyaquestionofformtransformationofthecompany’sasset,whichaffectsbothabilityanddegreeofthecashrealizationofassets,andw’sjudgmenton,thecreditormayrequesttoexaminethecreditoftheparentcompanyanditsimportantsubsidiarycompanies,andatthesametime,mayrequesttomakel,iftheydislikethecompanytomaketrans-investment,thegeneralshareholdersmaybeforehandlimitorprohibitthecompanytocarryoutoversizedtrans-investmentinthecompany’sarticlesofassociation,ormayclearlydefinethatthecompanyshouldall’strans-investmentactivitydoesnotnecessarilyincreaseashareholder’sinvestmentrisks,’strans-investmentprojectprovedtobesuccessful,,ourcountry,mostoftheenterprisesstriphighqualitypropertyfromtheoriginalonestothenewlyset-upjoint-stockcompanies,alreadybreakingthroughtheproportionof50%.Oursuggestionistoloosenthislimitation,andatthesametimetoconsummatesuchsystemsasinformationdisclosure,mutuallystock-holdinglimitation(forinstance,tolimittheshareholdingproportionofsubsidiarycompanyintheparentcompanyanditsrelatedresolutionpower)andsoon,toreducesnegativeinfluencespossiblycausedbytrans-investment.yzc567亚洲城官方开户The Peoples Government of Shaanxi Province LuZhongyuanResearchReportNo043,’sInvestment-ConsumptionRelationshipAnalyzingthefactorsaffectingthechangesintheinvestment-consumptionrelationshipisabsolutelynecessarytointerpretingthecausesandmech’incomeandtheupgradingofconsumptionstructureconstitutethefundamentalstartingpoi,residents’incomeinChina’surbanandruralareashasrisenrapidly,andclothingweremetbyfarmproduce,somepeoplehavemovedto,theEngel,,theEngelcoeffic’’consumptionandtheupgradingofthestructureofconsumptionhaveposedanobjectivedemandthattherateofendconsumptionshouldbeincreastionforalongtimeisinconsistentwiththegrowingdemandofthepeople’sco’sresidents’consumptiongrowthisstillenormousandthespaceforresidents’’srelativelyhighinvestmentrate,whilethedecliningdispositionofresidents’co,China’soverallsavingsrate(theproportionoftotalsavingsinthetotaldisposableincomeofallcitizens)stayedsteadilyaround40percent,farhigherthantheworld’,theoverallsavingsrateintheUnitedStateswas15percent,buttheresidents’,China’sinvestmentrateduringthesameperiodwasalsoabout40percentonaverage,whichwasalsofarhigherthantheworld’’soverallsavingscomefromresidents’,thehouseholdsectoraccountedfor53percent,,thefinancialinstitutio’stotalinvestment,,,thenon-financialenterprisesaccountedforashighas77percent,’stotalsavingsandthatofitstotalinvestmentshowsthatthehouseholdsectorwasthelargestfundingsurplussector,whichconstitutedthemostimportantfundingsourceoftheinvestmentbythecorporatesec’shighinvestmentrateisthehighlevelofdomesticsavings,especiallythehighresidents’ingapore,,’incomeisatagivenlevel,thehigherthedispositionofsavings(namelytheproportionofsavingsindisposableincome)is,thelowerthedispositionofconsumption(namelytheproportionofconsumptionindisposableincome)’dispositionofsavingsdeclinesandtheirdispositionofconsumptionrises,theinvestmentratewillfall,,theChinesepeople’sdispositionofconsumptionhasgraduallydeclined,,theaverageconsumptiondispositionofChina’,’consumptioncontinuestofallandthegrowthofconsumptionspendingcontinuestoslowdown,thedispositionofsavingswillbeinevitablytoohigh,whichwillhaveanegativeimpacton,acoordinatedchangeinthedispositionofresidents’savingsandconsumptionisofvitalimportancetorationalizingtherelationshipbetweeninvestmentandconsumption....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1GuoHao:AnAnalysisofChina’sCapitalFlow,ScienceofFinanceandEconomy,Issue4,:2003:China’sConsumptiononFastTrack,EconomicDaily,January21,2003.’dwillmaintainasteadygrowthwhiletheinter,theunfavorableimpactoftheseuncertaintiesontheChineseeconomyisexpectedtobesmallerthanlastyearandthena,,thegrowthofthetotalvolumeofconsumergoodsretaildeclinedslightly,mainlyduetotheeffectofdecliningpricesandthefactthatthepurchasingwithtokenmoney,,,price,supplyandotherfactors,itisunlikel,,thegrowthofforeigninvestmentwasfa,,investmentgrowthisexpectedtobes,exportgrowthisexpectedtobesl,,,,weshouldseethatastheimprovementinChina’sexportconditionsisnottangibleanditsimportwillgrowfasterafterWTOaccession,thecountry’yfast,foreigndemandintermsofnetexportwilldecline,andthisyear’seconomicgrowthwillbeequaltoorslightlyhigherthanthatoflastyear,thepasttwoyears,somepositivechangesofmid-a,housing,automobile,telecommunications,infrastructureandothersectorsthatcoulddirectlyupgradeconsumptionstructureandindustrialstructureandeffectivelypushforw,foreigntransnationalcompaniesacceleratedthetransferringofpr,progresshasbeenmadeinreformingthestate-ownedenterprises,inbringingthemoutofdifficulties,andinrestructuring,reorganizing,,someenterprisesthaisesinsoutheastcoastalprovincesha,thereform,telecommunications,,initialprogresshasbeenmadeintheadjustmentandreformofgovernmentsystem,especiallyinoverhaulingtheadministrativeexaminationandapprovalsystem,,governmentrelationswithenterprises,,someispenditure;thesecondisthecontrastbetweeneconomicgrowthandeconomicefficiencyindex;andthethirdisthatwhiletheeconomyhasmaintainedafairlyfastgrowth,sitivefiscalpoliciesimplementedbythegovernmentinrecentyearsandthepoliciesofreformandadjustmentthatweredesi,therecouldbenoliberalenvironmentforthegrowthofsoci,withoutinherentdrivingforceforeconomicgrowth,thefairlyfasteconomicgrowthr,thetotalvolumeoftheChineseeconomyhasbeenconstantlyexpandingwhilethescaleofnationalbondsissuedbythegove,tosomeextent,duetotheexcessivedependenceoftheon-goingeconomicgrowth,especiallythegrowthofinvestmentandexport,yrelatedtothechangesintheexternalenvironment(forexample,thedeclininginternationaloilprices)he,protectandstrengthenthemarket-basedinherentdrivingforceforec,urtheupgradingofconsumptionstructure,suchaslowertaxesandfees,,housingmonetization,whichhasnotbeentrulyimplemented,andthemarketizationofusedhousesshouldbeexpedited,whilethe,stmententhusiasmofallinvestors,,theproactivefiscalpoliciesaimedatmaintainingeconomicgrowthrateshouldbereplacedbythefiscalpoliciesthatgiveequalemphasistosuppo,aftertheon-goingprojectssupportedbynationalbondsarebasicallycompleted,theemphasisofthefiscalpoliciesshouldshifttoincreasingthesupportforpoorpeopleandbackwardregionsandeasingthecont,itisimperativetoincreasethesupportfortheconstructionofthesocialsecuritysystem,toeasethehistoricalburdensofthestate-ownedenterprisesthatareintransition,andtopromotethecomprehensiveandsubstantialadvanceintheadjustmentofthedistributio,itisnecessarytoincreasetheinputoftheguidingfundsininfrastructureconstructionandrelatedareasandtoexpeditetheexplorationfornewmechanismstoattract,withlimitedfiscalfunds,asmuchsocialfundsaspossibletoinvestinthepublicsectorswelfare....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Theabovetable,thisgroupcanbedividedintotwomajorcategories:Onecategoryisthesectorsthatarecloselyrelatedtothestructuralupgradingofpersonalconsumption,includingelectronicandcommunicationproducts,,therapidgrowthofthisgroupbenefited,firstofall,fromthegrow,thegrowthofthetradit,moderncot,theratioofpersonalconsumerdemandhasrespectivelyreacheverthelevelin2001,thecoverageoffixedtelephonesandmobilephonewentupbynearly100percent,,drasticgrowthwasalsopostedforair-conditioners,-outputtableindicatesthatdemandgrowtharisingfromthestructuralupgradingofpersonalconsum,thegroup’,theexportofelectronicandcommunicationproductsaoftheequipmentofvarioussectors,,therapidchemicalindustryhasdrivenupthedemandforspecialequipmentrequiredbythepetrochemicalsector,andtheaccelerationofelectricityconstruction,thiscategoryasawholehasstillmaintainedafast-growingstan,,nearly50percentoftheproductsofthegeneralmachinerysectorhavebeenusedtomeettheequipmentdemandarisingfrominvestmentsinfixedassets,:ironandsteel(includingmetallurgy,rollingandmetalproducts),nonferrousmetalsandrelatedexcavationsectorThisindustrygroupismadeupofthefastest-growingsectorsofall,wit,themachineryindustryandespeciallythesectorsthatmakegeneralmachineryandspecialequipmenthavebeenthelargestusers,followedbyconstru,,industr,theirgrowt,forexample,,,,wecanestimatethatthestructureupgradingofpersonalhousingconsumptionhascontributedatlea,thecontinuousgrowthinthescopeandquantityoflargesteelstructuresusedfortheconstructionofmunicipalinfrastructurefacilitie:thechemicalindustryThepaceofgrowthoft,theaveragegrowthratewas24percent,whichwasabout3percentagepointshigherthantheoverallindustrialgro,thec,,thechemicalindustry’sfas,italsohasha,plasticproducts,chemicalproductsofdailyuse,andvariousmaterialsusedforhousingdecorationcontributedabout20percenttothegrowthofthefinaldemandofchemicalproductsasestimatedinthe2000input-outputtable. 


          滕博会下载客户端ByZhangJunkuoResearchReportNo047,2006Theimportanceofcompetitiononraisingeconomicefficiencyandim’sreformandopening-upisthatwhereverthestatemonopolyisbrokenandcompetitionisintroduced,vitalitywillbeinjected;theproductandservicequalitywillbeimproved;whereverthestatemonopolyismaintained,theproductandservicequalityareno,economicpracticehasalsoprovedthattheimprovementofeconomicefficiencyisnotonlydeterminedbytheopeningofaccessandintroductionofcompetition,,orderlyandfairmarketcompetitionisc,disorderlyandunfaircompetitionwilldamageeffectivenessofmarketmechanism,,maintainingasoundcompetitionorderi,howtoguaranteeasufficient,orderlyandfairmarketc,competitionpoChangesTheoretically,,regulations,,regulations,policyand,inadditiontothecompetitionpolicyinanarrowsense,suchpolicyalsoinvolvesthepoliciesofprivatization,deregulation,subsidy,internationaltradeandforeigninvestmentpolicies,eandimp,themainfactorsrestrictingthemarketcompetitionmayvarywithdifferenteconomicsystems,differentstagesofe,fordevelopedWesterncountrieswherethemarketsystemsaremoremature,legalsystemsaremorecompleteandgovernmentconductsaremorestandardized,theproblemsinadministraelargesizeofenterprises,theprobleminbusinessmonopolyisusuallyprominent,andthefocu,theessentialproblemisobviouslynottocheckunfaircompetitionorbusinessmonopoly,astheeconomyisbasicallybuiltontheplannedeconomy,whichismonopolizedbythestate,are,first,hoketeconomy,theproblemssuchasnon-standardizedmarketentities,unfaircompetition,includingmisuseofdominantpositioninthemarket,monopolyagreementsandmarketconcentration,theywouldobviouslybecomeaprominentproblemthatneedstobestressedbythecompet,foraneconomyinthecourseofsystemictransformation,,theproblemsthatfacepromotingand(forinstance,intheearlyperiodofsystemictransformation),themainissueisnottotacklebusinessmonopoly,buttoinentanti-monopolylaws,buttotransfergovernmentfunctions,establishmarketrulesandreformcorporatesystems,fChina’sReformBeforetheimplementationofreformandopening-uppolicyin1978,’;,,,in1978,morethan77%oftheindustrialoutputvaluewascontributedbythestate-ownedenterpriseswhilecollectivefirmsturnedoutmorethan22%.,,,Chinastartedtoimplementthemarket-orientedpolicyofreformandopening-up,thecorecontentwastochangetheplannedsystem,,manyofthereformpolicies,suchasderegulatingandgivingupthecontrolofmandatoryplans,reformingstate-ownedenterprises,developingprivateenterprisesandlooseningthepricecontrol,,,,,thecountryisfacingexcessivecompetition,notinadequatecompetition.Another 19 impoverished areas to be delisted in Tibet 2)MetroBusSystem:PracticeofRationalAllocationofTransportationResourceTheproblemofcitytransportationisaproblemofhowtoachievetherationalallocationofcurrenttransportationresources(suchasroads,intersections,andvehicles)inaneffforprivatevehiclesandpublicvehicles,wherebusesaremixedwithpriewithprinciplesof"independentroadrights"and"busfirstinintersections".Evenincaseoflessstar-upfundandnoincreaseintransportationresources,thissystemcansignificantlyimprovetheefficiencyoftransportation,therailtransithighlightsindevelopingnewtypesoftransportationresourcestosubstituteexistingresources,whiletheMetroBusSystememphasizesoneliminatingthelowefficiencyofthemixedtrafficsystemandrationallyallocatingandsuffici,wecanstarttheshiftfromtheordinarybussystemtotheMetroBusSystembyimprovingexistingroadsandtrafficsignalsystems,whichfeatureinlowerstart-updifficulties,,thecostofcapital(basedoncomparablepricesin2000)isabout1/10~1/)MetroBusSystem:Aneasilyupgraded"dynamicsystem"Byupgradingandenhancingthegroundtrafficsystem,th,afterinvestigatingthepracticeoftheMetroBussystemincitiesofCuritiba,Stockholm,Amsterdam,Gothenburg,theprojectteamsuggeststhatthetheoryandtechniquesofthissyst,,theroutenetworkofthissystemcanbepartiallyimplementedbyfirstlylayingtrafficsignalsinintersectionsandthengraduallyintroducingtechniquessuchasthepassengerinformationsystem,,theloadingcapacityofthesystemwillbegradutyintimeitisneeded,andhelpstomaintainabettersuptems(suchasundergroundsystems)intheirearlierdaysofoperation,)MetroBusSystem:ATransientSystemBetweenOrdinaryBusSystemAndLarge-capacityRailTransitTheMetroBusSystemadoptsthegroundtransportmodethatenablestheroutescanbeeasilyadjustedorchanged,orevenupgradedtorailtransitsystemswithalargerloadingcTransprotationInSuzhouSincethebeginningoftheeconomicreformandopening-uptotheoutsideworld,thesocialeconomyinSuzhouhasquicklydevelopeda,,thecapitalofthecountry,whileitsamountofpublictransitis728,whichisonly1/9ofthatofBeijing,,whichisonly1/,%,Hefei,Guangzhou,Shanghai,etc..WhyAccordingtosurveysofthesituation,themainreasonforthisisthepubl/4ofthemcomplainforthecrowdedsituationinsidebuses,about1/5ofthemcomplainforthepoortimereliabilityofthepublictransit,andabout1/3ofthemcomplainforwastingtoomuchtimeinwaitingforbuses....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LongGuoqiangTheshareoftheelectromechanicalproductsofforeign-investedfirmsinthenationalexporthasexceeded60percent,yetproblemspersist,suchasignoranceofthetruepictureoftheexportsoftheelectromechanicalproductsoftheforeign-fundedenterprises,,aresearchgroupwassetupbytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCounciltoholdenterpriseforumsorconductquestionnaireinquiriesonanextensivescaleinBeijing,Shanghai,GuangdongProvinceandotherp,areportforthereferenceofdecisionmakingisherebysubmittedforenhancingthemacro-economicbenefitsfromt,%annuallyonaverage,byfaroutstrippingthecorrespondingaverageannualgrowthrateofsimilarexportsbythedomesticenterprises,%.Inotherwords,thecontributionrateofforeign-fundedenterprisesreached70%,%n1998wasextremelysevereundertheshockwavesoftheAsianfinancialcrisis,,,%highcontributionratetonationalexports,thusmakingimportantcoshavepositiveeffectsontheinternationalbalanceofpaymentofChina,,in1999,theimportso,ofwhich,ydirectinvestmentofthatyear;w,,thesurplusunderthecurrentaccountforexport-orientedforeign-fundedenterpri,incomewasmainlycomposedofdirectinvestmentsandloancapitalwhileexpenditurewasm,,theyconstitutedthenumberonemaandpaymentofinterests,,withasurplusofinternationalbalanceofpaymentoverUSD15billionin1999,theseforeign-fundedenterprise,,,%arecapableofprovidingmostoftheskillsbytheirowntechnologicaldevelopmentinstitutionsandalmostonethird(%),theseenterprisesfocusontechnologicaldevelopment,withtheproportionofRDinstitutionsnotonlymuchhigherthanthecorrespondingaverageofotherlargeandmedium-sizedforeign-fundedenterprises,butalsohigherthanthatofthedomesticcounterparts,,wefoundthatsomeenterpriseshadshiftedfromtheoriginalequipmentmanufacturer(OEM)andupgradedtotheoriginaldesignmanufacturer(ODM).Finally,t,stimulatedChinasdomesticmarketdem,manyenterpriseshaveadoptedavarietyofmeasuretoraisethequalityofChinese-madepartsandcomponents,andsomehaveevendemandedChineseupstreamenterprisestooperateincompliancewiththeirtechnicalstandardsbypro,theseforeign-fundedenterpriseshavenotonlyenlargedproductionandmarketingofthedomesticenterprises,butmoreimportantlyelevatedtheirtechnologicallevelsbyabigmargin,raisedtheoverallqualityofdomesticenterprisesbystrengtheningtheirmarket-orientedconcepts,suchasstableproductquality,%oftheexport-orientedforeign-fundedenterprisesrelatedwithelehipasChina’slabormarketsmakeincessantimprovements,’,,esforeign-fundedenterprisestomakebiggercontributiontonationaleconomy,,,weakinternationalcompetitivenessduetoavarietyoffactorsmakesitdifficultfortheproduct,however,existsforthemtogoabroadthroughsupplementingtheexportsofforeign-investedenterprisessoasto"gooverseasbyborrowingtheirships".,mo,domesticproductspresentunstablequality,,theprocurementrightu%ofthejointventureswithforeigninvestorsholdingthemajoritysharesprocuretheirrawmaterial,,esn’tionssetupbytheforeign-fundedenterprisesengagedintheexportofelectromechanicalproducts,theirtechn-fundedenterpri,wemustgiveprioritytoremovingtheadversefactorsinourexistingpolicieswhichhavehinderedtechnologicaladvance....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ItcanbeseenfromCh,,theannualgrowthratejumpedover14percent,,theCentralGovernmenttookstrictmeasuresofmacro-regulationincludingadoptionofadministrativemeasuressu,theslowdownofgrowthduringthisperiodoftimewasanormalresponsetothemeasu,however,,theCentralGovernmenthasshiftedtoanexpansivefinancialandmonet,,andlargeamountsofproductioncapacitiesremainidle,,surplusofproductioncapacitieswhenithasjustreachedafairlyprimarystageofdevelopmentToanswerthisquestion,itisnecessaandfornon-governmentalinvestment--twomajorfactorsrestrictinggrowthofdomesticdemandDemandcanbedivided,firstofall,,theAsianfinancialcrisisin1997anditsseriousinfluenceuponChina’sexportshaveconsti,forinstance,China’,domesticdemandwillalwaysplayadecisiveroleintheeconomicgrowth,fromalongpointofview,theinfluenceofexportgrowthontheeconomicgrowthasawholewillbecomparativelysmaller(asshowninChart2).Domesticdemand,theretailofconsumergoodsinChina’,,,theslowdowninconsumptiondemandgrowthhasitsrootmainlyintheruralareas,asindicatedinTable1.,2002Inrecentyears,alongwiththeexpansionoftheroleofprivateenterprisesinlocaleconomicdevelopment,localgovernmentsaregivingmoreandmoreattentiontothectiveprotectionofthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofprivateenterpr,eventsofencroachmentonthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofprivateenterprisesremaincommonandserious,,problemsrelatingtotheprotectionofthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofprivateenterprisesmainlytakethefollowingforms::DifficultmanagementafterpurchaseBasedontheinvestigationofrelevantdepartmentsincludingtheFederationofIndustryandCommerceofAnhuiProvince,inSeptember1998,HaitianGroup,aprivateenterpriseinMa,HaitianGroupwastobuyoverMaAnShanRubberPlant,abankruptenterprise,,,butmostofthemdidnotsinouncements,itstoppedissuingwagesfortheseworkersandstaffsinceJunethenextyear,resultingina,thecompanyreissuedthewagesoftheabsentworkersandstaffaccordingtotheopinionofthecoordina,astheworkersandstaffdidnotchangetheir"bigpot"mindset,theconfrontationalmooddidnotsubside,,theworkersandstaffappealedto,theChemicalIndustryBureauofthecityinformedHaitianGroupinwriting,askingHaitianGrouptowithdrawfromHaixiangCompany,,theChemicalIndustryBureau,backedupbythecityleaders,appealedtothecou,:Privateenterprises’,duetovariousconstrainingfactors,privateenterprise,butonceprivateenterpriseswanttopurchasethem,enbeinglaidoff,butoncetheirenterprisesaretobepurchasedbyormergedwithprivateenterprises,theybecomeprovocativeandtouchy,,thegovernmentusuallytriestomaintainst:GovernmentconstructionprojectstrangledaprivateenterpriseinGuiyangGuiyangXinghuaFerroalloyPlantisaprivate,thesittingofthenewGuiyangairportin,atthespecialmeetingpresidedoverbyavicemayor(concurrentdeputycommanderfortheconstructionoftheLongdongbaoAirport)ofGuiyang,,XinghuaFerroalloyPlantmustcompleteitsmovebeforeMarch1996;aspecialworkinggroupforthemovingwouldbeestablishedtooverseetheimplementation;andasXinghuaFerroalloyPlantenjoyedgoodeconomicresults,,theworkinggroupforthemovingrelayedtheideaofthespecialmeetingtoXinghuaFerroalloyPlant,(1995)ofHuaxiDistrictG,XinghuaFerroalloyPlantimmediatelystoppedbusinessactivitiesands,theplantconductedassetassessmentaccordingtolegalprocedures,formulatedthebudgetreportforreorgani,aftertheplantstoppedproduction,ibilityamongthem,,themovingfeeswereembezzledbycertainleadersforrenovatingbuildingsinthe,theplantreportedtotheprovincialgovernmentofGuizhouandobtai,,,,,themanagementofXinghuaFebur,theairportthenclaimedthatthesiteoftheplantwaswithintheclearancezoneoftheairportandits,theheadofenvironmentalprotectionbureauofHuaxiDistrictGovernmentofGuiyangCitycametotheplantwithsomeotherpeopleandannou,leadingtodirecteconomiclossesofoverRMB400,,theplantisstilltr:Thiscase,theimportantdecisiontomovetheplantfromitsexitingsite,whichrelatedtoenterprisesurvival,roup"relayedtheideaofthespecialmeeting"toitandwas"demandedtoimplementaccordingtotherequirementscontainedinthedocument".Second,aftertheenterprisestoppedproduction,thedepartmentsconcerneddidnottrytosolveitsactualproblems,,whentheenterprisehadtoresumeproductiontosaveitselffouryearsafterproductionstopped,apieceofhand-writtenpaperofthechiefofthedistrictenvironmentalprotectwithforeigninvestment,coulditbetreatedinthatwayComparedwiththesetwotypesofenterprises,privateenterprisesapparentlycouldnotnegotiatewithgovernmentdepartmentsontheirexistingstatus,andtheirrightsandinterestsarenothinginfrontofgovernmentdocuments....Ifyouneedthefullcontext, 


          ItcanbeseenfromCh,,theannualgrowthratejumpedover14percent,,theCentralGovernmenttookstrictmeasuresofmacro-regulationincludingadoptionofadministrativemeasuressu,theslowdownofgrowthduringthisperiodoftimewasanormalresponsetothemeasu,however,,theCentralGovernmenthasshiftedtoanexpansivefinancialandmonet,,andlargeamountsofproductioncapacitiesremainidle,,surplusofproductioncapacitieswhenithasjustreachedafairlyprimarystageofdevelopmentToanswerthisquestion,itisnecessaandfornon-governmentalinvestment--twomajorfactorsrestrictinggrowthofdomesticdemandDemandcanbedivided,firstofall,,theAsianfinancialcrisisin1997anditsseriousinfluenceuponChina’sexportshaveconsti,forinstance,China’,domesticdemandwillalwaysplayadecisiveroleintheeconomicgrowth,fromalongpointofview,theinfluenceofexportgrowthontheeconomicgrowthasawholewillbecomparativelysmaller(asshowninChart2).Domesticdemand,theretailofconsumergoodsinChina’,,,theslowdowninconsumptiondemandgrowthhasitsrootmainlyintheruralareas,asindicatedinTable1.头头国际app下载LuZhongyuanResearchReportNo043,’sInvestment-ConsumptionRelationshipAnalyzingthefactorsaffectingthechangesintheinvestment-consumptionrelationshipisabsolutelynecessarytointerpretingthecausesandmech’incomeandtheupgradingofconsumptionstructureconstitutethefundamentalstartingpoi,residents’incomeinChina’surbanandruralareashasrisenrapidly,andclothingweremetbyfarmproduce,somepeoplehavemovedto,theEngel,,theEngelcoeffic’’consumptionandtheupgradingofthestructureofconsumptionhaveposedanobjectivedemandthattherateofendconsumptionshouldbeincreastionforalongtimeisinconsistentwiththegrowingdemandofthepeople’sco’sresidents’consumptiongrowthisstillenormousandthespaceforresidents’’srelativelyhighinvestmentrate,whilethedecliningdispositionofresidents’co,China’soverallsavingsrate(theproportionoftotalsavingsinthetotaldisposableincomeofallcitizens)stayedsteadilyaround40percent,farhigherthantheworld’,theoverallsavingsrateintheUnitedStateswas15percent,buttheresidents’,China’sinvestmentrateduringthesameperiodwasalsoabout40percentonaverage,whichwasalsofarhigherthantheworld’’soverallsavingscomefromresidents’,thehouseholdsectoraccountedfor53percent,,thefinancialinstitutio’stotalinvestment,,,thenon-financialenterprisesaccountedforashighas77percent,’stotalsavingsandthatofitstotalinvestmentshowsthatthehouseholdsectorwasthelargestfundingsurplussector,whichconstitutedthemostimportantfundingsourceoftheinvestmentbythecorporatesec’shighinvestmentrateisthehighlevelofdomesticsavings,especiallythehighresidents’ingapore,,’incomeisatagivenlevel,thehigherthedispositionofsavings(namelytheproportionofsavingsindisposableincome)is,thelowerthedispositionofconsumption(namelytheproportionofconsumptionindisposableincome)’dispositionofsavingsdeclinesandtheirdispositionofconsumptionrises,theinvestmentratewillfall,,theChinesepeople’sdispositionofconsumptionhasgraduallydeclined,,theaverageconsumptiondispositionofChina’,’consumptioncontinuestofallandthegrowthofconsumptionspendingcontinuestoslowdown,thedispositionofsavingswillbeinevitablytoohigh,whichwillhaveanegativeimpacton,acoordinatedchangeinthedispositionofresidents’savingsandconsumptionisofvitalimportancetorationalizingtherelationshipbetweeninvestmentandconsumption....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1GuoHao:AnAnalysisofChina’sCapitalFlow,ScienceofFinanceandEconomy,Issue4,:2003:China’sConsumptiononFastTrack,EconomicDaily,January21,2003.Whos Who english.scio.gov.cn ChengXiusheng,LuHuapu,,roadcapacityinChinesecitieshadbeenlow,theper-capitaroadar,roadconstructionbegantospeedup,,maintaininganannualgrowthofabout10%.Althoughthegrowthspeedwasfast,itstilllaggedfarbehindthe20%,vehiclesinChinesecitiesgrewatanannualrateofmorethan15%,andtheannualgrowthrateofprivateautomobileswasashighas28%.fhighefficiency,energysavingandlowemissionaretobedeveloped,,improvethecitystructureandregion,thefastgrowthofautomobileswouldgiverisetosuchproblemsasenvironmentalpollution,slowerdrivingspeed,increaseinthenumberoftrafficaccidents,thelowerlevelofpublictransportservice(lowerdrivingspeedandlowpunctuality),anddi,thepublicbustransport(includingtrolleybus)inbigcitieshasbeenshrinkingintermsofoperationefficiency,operationmanagement,,,,/1,,however,droppedfrom12-14kilometers/hourto5-10kilometers/hour,thenewlyin,ofallmeansoftransportforurbanresidents,theuseofpublicbusdroppedfrom30%toabout10%rivatecars,this,inreturn,resultedawiderareaoftrafficcongestioninciti’urbanizationandthewideruseofvehicles,urbantransportsystemwilloccupymoreland,consumelargeamountofe,China’scurrentresources(includinglandresources)reserveandenergystructure,environmentalcapacityandtheenvironmentalbearingcapaci,DirectoroftheTransportation,WaterSupplyandUrbanDevelopmentBureauoftheWorldBank,stressedthreemutuallysupplementaryprincipleswhenassessingthesustainabledevelopmentofurbantransport:sustainabilityofeconomyandfinance,,citiesindevelopedcountriesachievethesustainabledevelopmentofurbantransportfromthefollowingtwoaspects:comprehensiveplanningoftransportati’snationalconditionsthatChinesecitiesmustmakegreateffortstodeveloppublictranspordevelopmentofacitycouldbeachievedandwhetherwideruseofautomobilesa,landisinshortsupply,populationdensityishigh,therefore,ntprincipleofgivingprioritytopublictransportforurbanpassengertransportation,andthispolicywasclearlystipulatedinseveralStateCouncildocuments,itiesandintheprocessofurbantransportplanning,con,includingpriorityincapital,planningandconstruction,orintermsofthelong-termdevelopmentstrategyoftheurbantransportation,priorityisgiventoconstructingthefasttracktransportsystem,ictransportsystemintermsoftimeandspace,toincreaseitsspeed,shortentimespentonroadandimprovethetranspor,,inHongKong,carsarenotallowedtomakerightturnsduringrushhoursandonlypublicbuseshavetheprivilegeofmakingrightturns(inHongKong,peopledriveonbenefit).Intermsofspacepriority,specialla,Japan,specialpublicbuslanesaresetalongtheroa,thecityisplanningtoconstructelevatedpublictransportroadsinthecityareasothatthespeedofgroundpublicbusescouldbeincreasedto20km/hfrom10km/emisbasedonthepublictransportsysteminCuritiba,,ithasthefeaturesoflarge-capacitytracktransportsystem,specialroadrights,,italsohastheflexiblecharacteristicsoftheconventionalpublictranspsystem,itisanewandhighlyefficientmodeofpublictransportsolutionwithlowcost,shortconstructionperiod,"groundsubway"nBrazilCuritiba,locatedinsouthernBrazil,(300carsper1,000residents).Thetransportforsu,,thecityhopedtodevelopamodern,,,thelandreservedfovelopedatplacesnearthepublictransportsystem,,designersandplannerspaidspecialattentiontothepublicbusstops(crystaltube-shapedplasticbusstops),whichwereconstructedatthesameheightofthebottomofpublicbus(800mmtotheground).,passengerscouldbuyticketsfirstattheplatforms,andthencou,inordertoreducethestoptime,theleaningpassagefrompublicbuscouldbeextendedtotheplatformwhenthebusstops,sothatp,CuritibafinallydevelopeditsuniqueMetrobussystem....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,WuJinglian"Macrocontrol"andopening-upbegan,whenevergrowthwasaccelerated,itwouldsoonslnsivewayofeconomicgrowthtosteadilyrealizethegoalofindustrializationandmodernizationAtpresent,,weshouldthinkcoollyandseriouslyaboutsolvingthepro"NewPathtoIndustrialization"Sincethe16thPartyCongress,theCentralPartyCommitteehasrepeatedlyemphasizedthatChinashouldtakea"newpathtoindustrialization".Butuntilnow,thecadresandpeopl"New"isagainst"old".Theoldpathtoindustrializationreferstotheonetakenbytheadvancedustrializedcountriesduringctthatthegrowthwasnotrealizedthroughtheinputofcapitalorotherresources,butbytheaccumulationandriseintheefficiencyofhumancapital(humanknowledgeandtalent).Accordingtotheresearchofmanyeconomistssincethe1950s,theriseofefficiencypropellingmoderneconomicgrowthismainlyduetothreereasons:First,theextensiveapplicationof"science-basedtechnologies".Beforethat,technologiiencesandhedidapplysometheoriesofthermo-dynamicsinimprovinghissteamengine,novationhasinspiredtheenthusiasmofhigh-qualitytalentandenterprisesinapplyingnewtechnologiesafterthesecondindustrialrevolution,newtechniques,newmaterials,newenergyandnewproductshavebeencreatedandwidelyused,,centurywasnotindustry,orheavyindustry,,especiallytheproductiveservicetrade,engagedinthepre-production,mireducingcosts,,theindustrializationinthelatterperiodwasalsocalled"servicetrade-industrialization".Third,theapplicationofmoderninformationtechnologyhaseantagesoflatedevelopmentandraisetheirefficiencybyusingthistechnologyundereconomicallyreasonableconditionsto"bringalongindustrializationwithinformationization."rizedby"HeavyIndustrialization"anditsAdverseConsequencesAftertheFirstFive-YearPlan,ChinafollowedthetraditionalpathtoindustrializationoftheSovietUnion,aimingatcatchingupandsurpassingtheWesterncountriesinindustrialandagri,theCentralPartyCommitteerepeatedlystressedth,,inadditiontoinadequateunderstanding,thesystemsandpoliciesrelatedtothetraditionalpathtoindustrializationandeconomicgrowthmode,whichinclude:First,thegovernmentsandofficialsatvariouslevelsstillholdthepowerofresourceallocation,whichgoagainsttheprincipleofthesocialistmarketeconomy,suchasth,the"eightindexesheadedbytotaloutput"usedduringtheplannedeconomyisstillappliedincadres’appraisal,economicdevelopmentlevelratingandassessmentofofficials’,thefinancialandtaxationsystemwiththeproductivevalueaddedtaxesasthemaintaxitem,underwhichthecentralgovernmentandlocalgovernmentssharethefinancialrevenue,isstillencouragingthegovernmentstoprioritizet,thelow-pricepolicyandfreeallocationsystemforproductionelementssuchasnaturalresources,capital,laborandforeignexchangeswhichwereaimedatdevelopingresource-,thecountryislikelyto(2001-2005),Chinakingb(themarketorthegovernment)willadjustthestructure,how(throughmarketpricechangesoradministrativedecrees)theadjustmentismade,,manygovernmentofficialsregardindustrialstructureoptimizationasdevel"heavy-industrialized"industrialmix,creatingaseriesofnegativeconsequences. 


          HanJun,XieYang,XuXiaoqing,CuiChuanyi,PanYaoguo,1thFive-YearPlan(1),China’stotalgraindemandwillgoupannuallyduetopopulationgrowth,ble,nsumptionrevealsthatwhenincomeisatarelativelylowlevel,grainisthemai,livestockproductswillreplacethereducedportionofcereal,theconsumptionoflivestockproductsstabilizes,’sfoodconsumptionisinthesecondperiod,namelyaperiodduringwhichfoodconsum,theconsumptionoflivestockproductsbyurbanresidentswillgrowatarelativelyslowpace,whilethespaceforsuchconsumptionbyruralresidentsisfairlylargeandsuchconsumptionwillgrowatarelativelyfastpace.(2)Theaccelerateddevelopmentofindustrializationandurbanizationwillbringabou’,thelevelofChina’,thelevelofChina’,iftheproportionofagriculturalemploymentdropsby1percentagepointeachyearwiththeaccelerationofeconomicdevelopment(overthetwodecadesfrom1981to2001,),theproportionofagriculturale,theaccelerationofindustrializationandurbanizationoverthenext20yearswillbringaboutrareopportunitiesforChinatosolvethethreeagriculture-relatedproblems.(3)Chinahasenteredadevelopmentperiodinwhichindustrycounter-feedsagriculture,andha’scounter-feedingofagricultureisanactofgovernmentinterventioninagriculture,,manycountriesexperiencedaperiodinthecourseofindustrialization,duringwhichagriculturefirstpr,industrialandfarmproductscouldnotbetradedonanequalfootingduetothelon,thestateobtainedhugeamountsoffundsfromtheagriculturalsectorandseriouslyweakenedagriculture’,agriculture,whichhadalreadybeenbackward,losttheabilityforself-developmentbecauseitfailedtoreceivesufficientvaluecompensationoveralongperiod,andthematerialandtechnicalco,thestateclearlyintensifi,agr,agricultureisstillinanunfavorablepos,China’spercapitaGDPatcurrentexchangeratessurpassed1,strywasabout15∶85,theratiobetweentheemploymentofagricultureandnon-farmindustrieswasabout50∶,Chinahasenteredthemiddleperiodofindustrialization,duringwhichnon-farmindustriesinsteadofagriculturehavebecometheleadingsectorofthenation,differentcountriesadopteddifferentmeasuresinlig,Chinaingeneralhasenteredthedevelopmentperiodduringwhichindustryshouldcounter-feedagricultureandhencethepolicytoprotect,thenationalrevenuefromagriculturaltaxandsurchargestotaled46billionyuan,andtheasandChinacannotgivehugeamountsofsubsidiestoincreasetheincomeofpeasantsasdevelopedcountriesdo,thecountryingeneralhasalreadyposseevelopmentduringthe11thFive-YearPlan(1)Agriculturalproductionfacesgravechallengessuchascontinuousshrinkingoffarmland,overallworseningo"increasedpopulation,reducedfarmlandandreducedwater"willcontinueandtheconstraintofresourceconditionstoagriculturaldevelopmentwillbecomeevenmoreacute.(2)Oversupplyofrurallaborandunderemploymentwillcontinuetobemajorconstraintstoth,,technologicaladvancesinagriculturewillreleaseaconsiderableamountoflabor.(3)The,co’sfunctionsaremonotonr,theruralcreditcoopegthevastruralareas,,,thestate-ownedcommercialbanksattractedmorethan300billionyuanofdepositsfromtheruralareasandthef,thecreditcooperativealsosawabout200billionyuanoffundsflowingoutoftheruralareaseachyearonaveragethroughre-depositingfundsinthecentralbank,purchasingnationaldebtsandfinancialbondsandotherchannels.(4)Imports and Exports by HS Section and Division, 9.2019 ,ovementofSocialistMarketEconomicSystemapprovedbytheThirdPlenarySessionofthe16thPartyCentralCommitteepointedoutthataunifiedandstandardrealpr,whatimpactstherealpropertytaxwilliscussingtheissuehavedifferentviewsonthecontentsoftherealpropertytax,,thesediscussionshavefailedto"lockon",itisnecessarytobrieflyreaffirm,beforediscussingthistopicinthisarticle,themainpointsoftheframeworkdesignoftherealpropertytaxwemadeinourbook"DesignofChinasRealPropertyTaxSystem"(EditedbyXieFuzhanandco-editedbyLongGuoqiangandDingChengri,ChinaDevelopmentPress,September2006)"spreadoutthelump-sumlandtransferroyaltytoannualcollections".Landtransferroyaltybelongstothescopeoflandrent,,threeexistingtaxtypes,namelytherealestatetax,theurbanrealestatetaxandtheurbanlandusetax,rnaltaxsystemsandcanthoroughlychangethecurrentstateoftherealestatetaxsystem,w,itsetsanon-taxableamounttoreflecttheresultroughlyconformstothe"two-eight"principle:80%oftaxrevenuecomesfrom20%edbyindustrialandcommercialenterprisesandtothehigh-endresidentialbuildingsintheurbanareas,,theexistingrealestatetaxandfeesystemshouldbeoverhauledandtheunreasonablechargesshouldbeabolisealestatemarket,dTothehousebuyers,thegreatestchangearisingfromtheintroductionoftherealprop,,thebulkofthenumeroustaxesandfeesexistingintheoriginalrealestatetradinglinkispaidbytherealestatedevelo,acutinthetaxesandfeesoriginally,acutinthetaxesandfeesinthetradinglinkoriginallyassum,theymaychoosetosavepartoftheirincomestobea,thehouse-buyingdemandwillhavenotangiblechangosomeextentOneimportantconsiderationofthisresearchgroupindesigningtherealpropertytaxsystemishowtodemonstratethestatepolicyorientationtoensurethatthebasicresidentialneedoftheresidentswillbemetandtoensurethattheresidentsinvariouspl,theintroductionofthenewrealpropertytaxwillbeaccompaniedbyamassoverhauland,therefore,thetaxandfeeburdenthatmustbedirectlyassumedbyt,whenthemarketsupply-demandrelationsarerelativelyeased,thetaxandfeeburdenthatmustbeassumedbythedevelopersandthenbepassedontotheho,modity,realestateitsedemandonChinata,theintroductionoftherealpropertytaxweakenstheinvestors,thecorrespondingrealpropertytaxwillbecomeheavier,whichinturnwil,,theintroductionoftherealpropertyt,thehomeownersdonothavetopayincometaxbeforetheintroductionoftherealpropertytax,whichmakestherealestateinvestmentandownershipa"moreprofitable"investmentoptionbecausetheinvestorscansitbyandwaitforthereveextent.恒峰g22注册开户常务副校长张莉一行赴海军某部看望中青班学员 Third,theglobalindustrialtransferandtherapiddevelopmentofChina’,theexportofmachineryandelectricalproductshasbeengrowingatanoticeablyfasterspeed,,thegrowthofforeigndirectinvestmentinChinahasbeendynamicthankstotheattractionofChina’’,theabovethreeforcesallhave,thecourseoftheirpushwillnotgethe,InvestmentandForeignTradeAreLikelytoResumeFastGrowthInadditiontothelong-termfactors,themedium-termfactors,mainlythetroikaofconsumption,investmentandforeigntrade,,thegrowthrateofconsumerdemandhaspostedanintermittentfallaft,thefallin2005istoalargeextentaresultofun,thefundamentalforcetodrivethegrowthofconsumerdemandl,,theintroductionofhigherthresholdforstartingpointoftaxationbythestateandtheeasingoftheemploymentpressurewillallsupportasustainedandsteadygrowthofdisposablepersonalincome,,weexpectthatinthefirsthalfof2005thegrowtho,theslowdowninthegrowthofconsumerdemandwillstabilizeorevenpicnsumerdemandandwillweakenthenegativeimpactofthefluctuationsofinvestmentgrowthinacertaindegreewhilecontinuingtopushforwardeconomicgrowth.XiaBin,,ionMustFurtherUnifytheRegulatoryPoliciesInlightoftheinadequateanddiversesupervisionsysteminChina’strustassetmanagementmarket,aswellastheseriousemergingproblemsandpotentialrisks,theauthorcalledinearly2001fortheconstructionofaunifiedassetmanagementsystem,oratrustassetmanagementsysteminChinaassoonaspossible(seeEconomicMagazine,May2001).Now,twoyearslater,theproblemsnotonlystillexist,butalsobecomemoreserious,withendlessmarketdisputes,continuousemergenceo(CBRC)stoppedthetrustlendingbusinessofMinshengBankinMarch2003,followedbythecalloftheSecuritiesRegulatoryCommission(CSRC)tostopassetmanageme,theauthorfurthercalledto"endthechaoticsituationofdiversepoliciesontrustassetmanagement",reportedhisthoughtstorelevantdepartmentleaders,andmadehisvoiceinnewspaper(seeFinancialEconomicTimes,24Many2003).Hecriticizedthelackofcoordinationandprudenceofthesupervisionsystemofrelevantregulatoryagencies,,withthelapseofanotheryear,whataretheinstitutionalchoicefortrustassetmanagementbusinessofbanks,securitiesinstitutionsandtrustcompanies,orotherwisenamedas"clientassetmanagementbusiness"or"collectiveassetmanagementbusiness"Therehasbeennonewdevelopm,,thecontentsoftheoriginalsystemstillconflictsignificantlywiththestipu,insomepartsofChina,banksarestillengagedsecretlyintrustlendingbusiness,eith,theCSRCannouncedthenullificationofthedocumentsontrustinvestmentmanagementformulatedrespectivelyin2001andthemiddleof2003,andirtrustfundmanagementoftrustcompanies,suchasthe"onetomultiple"trustassetmanagement,non-guaranteedminimumreturns,minimumrequirementsfortrustfunds,,theyhaveindeeddrawnfrompastlessons,andareconducivetothestandardizationoftrustassetmanagementbu,itisstillnecessaryforustothinkcarefully,orfortherelevantregulatoryagenciestoansweraftercoordination,thatwhyaclientusesthesametrustfundmanagementserviceseparatelyinbothasecuritiescompanyandatrustcompany,andwhydiffer,theCBRCstipulatesthattheminimumrequirementfortrustfundofasingleclientisRMB50,000,whiletheCSRCstipulatesthattheminimumrequirementfortrustfundofasingleclientinrestrictivecollectiveassetmanagementisRMB50,000,andfornon-restrictiveaggregateassetmanagementisRMB100,xceed200persons,or200contracts,whiletheCSRCubmittedtotheregulatoryagencyforrecordonly;whiletheCSRCstipulatesthattherestrictivecollectiveassetmanagementschemesmustgothroughcomplianceexamination,andnon-restrictiveaggregateassetmanagementschememustgothroughcomprehensiveexamination(relevantrulesstipulatethattherearethreekindsofapprovalsoftheadministrativedepartments–examination,certificationandputtingonrecord).TheCBRChasnoclearstipulationonifthetrustfundsofclientsmustbeturnedtotrustmanagementofathirdparty;whiletheCSRCstipulatesthattrustfundsofclientsmustbeturnedtotrustmanagementofatrustassetmanagementinstitution,etmanagementschemesoftheirowncompanieswiththeirownfunds;,trustinvestmentcompaniesstillhavedifficultytoopentheiraccountsforsuchschemessofarinstockexchanges(ItissaidthattheymaybeabletodoitafterOctober1).TheCSRChasnorestrictionongeographicareasofcollectiveassetmanagementoperationofsecuritiescompanies,whiletheCBRCclearlyrestrictsoraclientwhotrusthisfundstothehandsofbothatrustcompanyandasecuritiescompanyforthesametypeofsecuritiestransaction,suchasstocktransactionAsgovernmentregulatoryagencies,whatdotheCBRCandtheCSRCregardastherightsandinterestofthesameconsumptionactsofthesamefinancialconsumer,andwhatisthelegalbasisoftheirregulationactsIsitnecessarytounifyandcoordinateinter-agencypoliciesandgivefinancialconsumerstherighttogetinformationInfact,someunduefinancialrisksemergedexactlybecauseofthelong-termconflictsbetweendiverseregulatorypolicies. 

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